Miami-Dade County, Florida

Coordinates: 25°36′38″N 80°29′50″W / 25.61058°N 80.497099°W / 25.61058; -80.497099
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Miami-Dade County
Left to right from top down: Downtown Miami; a lifeguard station on South Beach; Miami Design District's Palm Court; Wynwood Walls in Wynwood Art District; Ocean Drive in Miami Beach; Venetian Pool; Anhinga Trail boardwalk in Everglades National Park; Kaseya Center; and Biscayne National Park
Flag of Miami-Dade County
Official seal of Miami-Dade County
Official logo of Miami-Dade County
Nickname(s): 
"Dade County", "Dade", "Metro-Dade", "Greater Miami"
Motto: 
Delivering Excellence Every Day
Miami-Dade County is located in the United States
Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 25°36′38″N 80°29′50″W / 25.61058°N 80.497099°W / 25.61058; -80.497099[1]
Country United States
State Florida
RegionSouth Florida
Metro areaMiami
FoundedJanuary 18, 1836
Named forFrancis L. Dade and Miami, derived from the Miami River, and ultimately derived from Mayaimi
County seat
and largest city
Miami
Incorporated municipalities34
Government
 • TypeTwo-tier federation
 • BodyMiami-Dade Board of County Commissioners
 • Miami-Dade Board of County Commissioners[2]
Commissioners
  • Oliver Gilbert (Chair)
  • Marleine Bastien
  • Keon Hardemon
  • Micky Steinberg
  • Eileen Higgins
  • Kevin M. Cabrera
  • Raquel Regalado
  • Danielle Cohen Higgins
  • Kionne McGhee
  • Anthony Rodriguez (Vice Chair)
  • Roberto Gonzalez (appointed)
  • Juan Carlos Bermudez
  • René García
 • Mayor of Miami-Dade CountyDaniella Levine Cava (D)[a]
Area
 • Total2,431.178 sq mi (6,296.72 km2)
 • Land1,898.753 sq mi (4,917.75 km2)
 • Water532.425 sq mi (1,378.97 km2)  21.9%
Highest elevation20−25 ft (6–8 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • Total2,701,767
 • Estimate 
(2022)[5]
2,673,837
 • Rank7th in the United States
1st in Florida
 • Density1,408.21/sq mi (543.71/km2)
DemonymMiami-Dadian[citation needed]
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern Daylight Time)
ZIP Codes
33002, 33010–33018, 33030–33035, 33039, 33054, 33056, 33090, 33092, 33101–33102, 33106, 33109, 33111–33112, 33114, 33116, 33119, 33122, 33124–33147, 33149–33158, 33160–33170, 33172–33199, 33206, 33222, 33231, 33233–33234, 33238–33239, 33242–33243, 33245, 33247, 33255–33257, 33261, 33265–33266, 33269, 33280, 33283, 33296, 33299
Area codes305, 786, 645
FIPS code12086
GNIS feature ID295755
GDP$155 billion[6]
Primary AirportMiami International Airport (MIA)
Secondary Airport
Interstates
U.S. Routes
State Routes
Rapid TransitMetrorail
Commuter RailAmtrak, Brightline, Tri-Rail
Websitewww.miamidade.gov

Miami-Dade County (/mˈæmi ˈdd/) is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. The county had a population of 2,701,767 as of the 2020 census,[4] making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States.[7] It is Florida's third largest county in terms of land area with 1,946 square miles (5,040 km2). The county seat is Miami, the core of the nation's ninth-largest and world's 65th-largest metropolitan area with a 2020 population of 6.138 million people, exceeding the population of 31 of the nation's 50 states as of 2022.[8]

As of 2021, Miami-Dade County has a gross domestic product of $154.9 billion, making it the 14th-largest of the nation's 3,033 counties. The county is home to the Port of Miami on Biscayne Bay, the world's largest passenger port with a world record 5.5 million passengers in 2018, and Miami International Airport, the third largest U.S. airport for international passengers and largest U.S. airport for international cargo. The county's land area of nearly 2,000 square miles exceeds that of two U.S. states, Delaware and Rhode Island.[9] The county is home to several universities and colleges, including the University of Miami in Coral Gables, a private research university that is routinely ranked as one of the nation's top universities and is the county's second-largest employer with nearly 17,000 employees as of 2021.[10][11]

Miami-Dade County is heavily Hispanic and was the most populous majority-Hispanic county in the nation as of 2020. It is home to 34 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas.[12] The northern, central and eastern portions of the county are heavily urbanized with many high-rise buildings along the coastline, including Miami's Central Business District in Downtown Miami. Southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of the county. Agricultural Redland makes up roughly one third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area, and is sparsely populated, a stark contrast to the densely populated, urban portions of the county northern sections.

The county includes portions of two national parks. To the west, the county extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village. Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves are located east of the mainland in Biscayne Bay.[13][14]

History[edit]

Native people[edit]

The earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region is from approximately 12,000 years ago.[15] The first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with the main villages on the northern banks.

The inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled much of southeastern Florida, including present-day Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern part of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta Indians fished, hunted, and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food, but did engage in agriculture. They buried the small bones of the deceased with the rest of the body, and put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.[16]

European explorers and settlers[edit]

Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the area in 1513 by sailing into Biscayne Bay. His journal records he reached Chequescha, a variant of Tequesta, which was Miami's first recorded name.[17] It is unknown whether he came ashore or made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés' missing son, shipwrecked a year earlier.[18] Spanish soldiers led by Father Francisco Villarreal built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year later but it was short-lived. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fend themselves from European-introduced diseases like smallpox. By 1711, the Tequesta sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba, to ask if they could migrate there. The Cubans sent two ships to help them, but Spanish illnesses struck and most of the Tequesta died.[19]

The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing almost a total loss of population in Miami.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River. He charted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, and six years later a census reported there were ninety-six residents in the area.[20] The Third Seminole War was not as destructive as the second, but it slowed the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed.

Establishment[edit]

Julia Tuttle is credited as Miami's founder.

Dade County was created on January 18, 1836, under the Territorial Act of the United States. The county was named after Major Francis L. Dade, a soldier killed in 1835 in the Second Seminole War, at what has since been named the Dade Battlefield.[21] At the time of its creation, Dade County included the land that now contains Palm Beach and Broward counties, together with the Florida Keys from Bahia Honda Key north and the land of present-day Miami-Dade County. The county seat was originally at Indian Key in the Florida Keys; then in 1844, the County seat was moved to Miami. The Florida Keys from Key Largo to Bahia Honda were returned to Monroe County in 1866. In 1888 the county seat was moved to Juno, near present-day Juno Beach, Florida, returning to Miami in 1899. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed from the northern portion of what was Dade County, and then in 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County. There have been no significant boundary changes to the county since 1915.[22][23][24]

Hurricane Andrew[edit]

The third-costliest natural disaster to occur in the United States was Hurricane Andrew, which hit Miami in the early morning of Monday, August 24, 1992. It struck the southern part of the county from due east, south of Miami and very near Homestead, Kendall, and Cutler Ridge, which was later renamed Cutler Bay. Damages exceeded US$25 billion in the county, and recovery took years in these areas where the destruction was greatest. Hurricane Andrew was the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history until Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf region in 2005.

Name change[edit]

On November 13, 1997, voters changed the name of the county from Dade County to Miami-Dade County to acknowledge the international name recognition of Miami.[25] Voters were acting pursuant to home rule powers granted to Dade County, including the ability to change the name of the county without the consent of the Florida Legislature.[26] With the name change, Miami-Dade became the only county in the United States whose name was hyphenated.

Geography[edit]

The Miami River in Downtown Miami in May 2008
Miami, Florida[27]
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
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Metric conversion
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According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,431 square miles (6,300 km2), of which 1,898 square miles (4,920 km2) is land and 533 square miles (1,380 km2) (21.9%) is water.[28] It is the third-largest county in Florida by land area and second-largest by total area. Most of the water is in the Biscayne Bay, with another significant portion in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

Miami-Dade County is only about 6 feet (1.8 m) above sea level. It is rather new geologically and is at the eastern edge of the Florida Platform, a carbonate plateau created millions of years ago. Eastern Dade is composed of Oolite limestone while western Dade is composed mostly of Bryozoa.[29] Miami-Dade is among the last areas of Florida to be created and populated with fauna and flora, mostly in the Pleistocene.

The bay is divided from the Atlantic Ocean by many barrier islands along the coast. The city of Miami Beach, home to the South Beach neighborhood and its Art Deco district, is built on these barrier islands. The archipelago of the Florida Keys, which extends in an arc to the south-southwest, is only accessible through Miami-Dade County, although most of the Keys are part of neighboring Monroe County. Miami is 68 miles from West Palm Beach, and 30 miles from Fort Lauderdale.

Communities[edit]

Miami-Dade County includes 34 incorporated areas, 38 census-designated places, and 16 unincorporated regions.

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1840446
1850159−64.3%
186083−47.8%
1870852.4%
1880257202.4%
1890861235.0%
19004,955475.5%
191011,933140.8%
192042,753258.3%
1930142,955234.4%
1940267,73987.3%
1950495,08484.9%
1960935,04788.9%
19701,267,79235.6%
19801,625,78128.2%
19901,937,09419.1%
20002,253,36216.3%
20102,496,43510.8%
20202,701,7678.2%
2022 (est.)2,673,837−1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census
1840–1970[30] 1980[31] 1990[32]
2000[33] 2010[34] 2020[4] 2022[5]
Historical racial composition 2020[4] 2010[34] 2000[33] 1990[32] 1980[31]
White (non-Hispanic) 13.4% 15.4% 20.7% 30.2% 46.4%
Hispanic or Latino 68.7% 65.0% 57.3% 49.2% 35.7%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 14.0% 17.1% 19.0% 19.1% 16.6%
Asian and Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic) 1.6% 1.5% 1.4% 1.2% 1.2%
Native American (non-Hispanic) 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Some other race (non-Hispanic) 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
Two or more races (non-Hispanic) 1.7% 0.8% 1.4% N/A N/A
Population 2,701,767 2,496,435 2,253,362 1,937,094 1,625,781
Demographic characteristics 2020[35][36][37] 2010[38][39][40] 2000[41][42][43] 1990[32] 1980[31][44]
Households 1,074,685 989,435 852,278 692,355 609,830
Persons per household 2.51 2.52 2.64 2.80 2.67
Sex Ratio 92.6 93.8 93.5 92.0 89.5
Ages 0–17 19.4% 21.9% 24.8% 24.2% 24.0%
Ages 18–64 63.4% 64.0% 61.9% 61.8% 60.3%
Ages 65 + 17.2% 14.1% 13.3% 14.0% 15.7%
Median age 41.0 38.2 35.6 34.2 34.7
Population 2,701,767 2,496,435 2,253,362 1,937,094 1,625,781
Economic indicators
2017–21 American Community Survey Miami-Dade County Florida
Median income[45] $32,513 $34,367
Median household income[46] $57,815 $61,777
Poverty Rate[47] 15.7% 13.1%
High school diploma[48] 82.5% 89.0%
Bachelor's degree[48] 31.7% 31.5%
Advanced degree[48] 11.9% 11.7%
Ethnic origins in Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties
Language spoken at home[b] 2015[c] 2010[d] 2000[51] 1990[52] 1980[53]
English 26.2% 27.7% 32.1% 42.6% 57.2%
Spanish or Spanish Creole 65.3% 63.9% 59.2% 50.1% 36.3%
French or Haitian Creole 5.0% 5.0% 5.1% 3.8% 1.3%
Other Languages 3.5% 3.4% 3.6% 3.5% 1.3%
Nativity 2015[e] 2010[f] 2000[58][59] 1990[52] 1980[53]
% population native-born 47.1% 48.8% 49.1% 54.9% 64.4%
... born in the United States 44.1% 45.7% 46.0% 51.5% 61.9%
... born in Puerto Rico or Island Areas 1.9% 2.0% 2.3% 2.3% 2.5%
... born to American parents abroad 1.1% 1.1% 0.7% 1.0%
% population foreign-born[g] 52.9% 51.2% 50.9% 45.3% 35.6%
... born in Cuba 25.7% 24.0% 23.3% 22.1% 20.0%
... born in Colombia 3.5% 3.5% 3.6% 2.2% N/A[h]
... born in Haiti 3.1% 3.0% 3.2% 2.3% N/A[h]
... born in Nicaragua 2.9% 3.3% 3.8% 3.5% N/A[h]
... born in Venezuela 2.3% 1.6% 1.1% 0.5% N/A[h]
... born in Honduras 1.7% 1.9% 1.5% 0.8% N/A[h]
... born in the Dominican Republic 1.5% 1.5% 1.6% 0.8% 0.4%
... born in Peru 1.3% 1.3% 1.2% 0.8% N/A[h]
... born in Mexico 1.0% 1.1% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3%
... born in Jamaica 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 1.6% 0.9%
... born in Argentina 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.4% N/A[h]
... born in Guatemala 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in Ecuador 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in Brazil 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.2% N/A[h]
... born in El Salvador 0.5% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in Spain 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% N/A[h]
... born in Chile 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% N/A[h]
... born in Panama 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in the Bahamas 0.2% 0.2% N/A[h] 0.4% N/A[h]
... born in Canada 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5%
... born in Italy 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3%
... born in the United Kingdom 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4%
... born in Russia 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 1.0%[i] 1.0%[i]
... born in Germany 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5%
... born in Poland 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7%
... born in other countries 5.0% 5.2% 5.6% 6.9% 12.3%

2010 U.S. Census[edit]

Downtown Miami in April 2008
Miami's Brickell neighborhood in November 2008
The beach at Crandon Park in Key Biscayne in February 2008

U.S. Census Bureau 2010 ethnic/race demographics:[60][61]

In 2010, the largest ancestry groups were:[60]

In 2010, Cubans made up the largest population of immigrants (with more than half of the population) with Colombians coming in second, Haitians in third, followed by Nicaraguans in fourth place, then Dominicans, Venezuelans, Peruvians, Jamaicans, Mexicans, and Argentinians among the highest group of immigrants.[64]

Miami-Dade has small communities of Brazilians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Ukrainians and Poles along with Canadians (including Francophone from the province of Quebec), French, Germans, other Europeans, British expatriates and Israelis.

There were 867,352 households, out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.5% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% (2.5% male and 5.9% female) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.33.[61][65]

The age distribution is 21.9% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males.[65]

The median income for a household in the county was $43,605, and the median income for a family was $50,065. Males had a median income of $35,096 versus $29,980 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,957. About 13.8% of families and 17.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 22.1% of those aged 65 or over.[66]

In 2010, 51.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 48.7% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 93.0% were born in Latin America, 3.2% were born in Europe, 2.7% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.5% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania.[60]

Population Miami-Dade
2020 Census 2,701,767
2010 Census 2,496,435
2000 Census 2,253,362
1990 Census 1,937,094

[67][68]

Languages[edit]

As of 2010, 28.1% of the population spoke only English at home, while 63.8% of the population spoke Spanish, 4.2% spoke French Creole (mainly Haitian Creole), 0.6% French, and 0.6% Portuguese.[69] About 52% of the county residents were born outside the United States, while 71.9% of the population spoke a language other than English at home.[69]

Religious statistics[edit]

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Miami-Dade County was the Archdiocese of Miami with 544,449 Catholics in 65 parishes, followed by 96,749 non-denominational adherents with 197 congregations, 80,123 SBC Baptists with 313 congregations, 47,921 NBC Baptists with 44 congregations, 27,901 Seventh-day Adventists in 62 congregations, 25,244 AoG Pentecostals with 45 congregations, 14,628 LDS Mormons with 18 congregations, 12,569 TEC Episcopalians with 30 congregations, and 11,880 UMC Methodists with 32 congregations. There is an estimated 23,064 Muslims with 15 congregations, 3,069 Hindus with 7 congregations, and 1,342 Buddhist with 17 congregations.[70]

In 2005 the Jewish population of the county has decreased but stabilized at about 121,000 with a high percentage of retired and elderly persons (but less than in Broward and Palm Beach counties). There are more than 60 congregations, 34 Jewish educational institutions, and three Jewish community centers. The highest percentage and increase in Jewish population is in North Dade, especially in Aventura. Miami-Dade County hosts Florida's third largest Jewish population and the nation's tenth largest.[70]

Altogether, 39.8% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.[71] In 2014, Miami-Dade County had 731 religious organizations, the 14th most out of all US counties.[72]

Law, government, and politics[edit]

The Stephen P. Clark Government Center, June 2018[73]

Miami-Dade County has operated under a metropolitan system of government, a "two-tier federation", since 1957. This was made possible when Florida voters approved a constitutional amendment in 1956 that allowed the people of Dade County (as it was known) to enact a home rule charter. Prior to this year, home rule did not exist in Florida, and all counties were limited to the same set of powers by the Florida Constitution and state law.

Unlike a consolidated city-county, where the city and county governments merge into a single entity, these two entities are separate. Instead there are two "tiers", or levels, of government: city and county. There are 34 municipalities in the county, the City of Miami being the largest.

Cities are the "lower tier" of local government, providing police and fire protection, zoning and code enforcement, and other typical city services within their jurisdiction. These services are paid for by city taxes. The County is the "upper tier", and it provides services of a metropolitan nature, such as emergency management, airport and seaport operations, public housing and health care services, transportation, environmental services, solid waste disposal etc. These are funded by county taxes, which are assessed on all incorporated and unincorporated areas.

Of the county's 2.6 million total residents (as of 2013), approximately 52% live in unincorporated areas, the majority of which are heavily suburbanized. These residents are part of the Unincorporated Municipal Services Area (UMSA). For these residents, the County fills the role of both lower- and upper-tier government, the County Commission acting as their lower-tier municipal representative body. Residents within UMSA pay a UMSA tax, equivalent to a city tax, which is used to provide County residents with equivalent city services (police, fire, zoning, water and sewer, etc.). Residents of incorporated areas do not pay UMSA tax.

Structure of county government[edit]

The Mayor of Miami-Dade County is elected countywide to serve a four-year term and is considered a "strong mayor". The mayor is not a member of the County Commission, appoints all 25 directors who oversee the operations of the County Departments and has veto power over the Commission. A mayoral appointment and veto can only be overridden by a two-thirds majority of the County Commission. The post is occupied by Daniella Levine Cava, the county's first female mayor.

The Board of County Commissioners is the legislative body, consisting of 13 members elected from single-member districts. Members are elected to serve four-year terms, and elections of members are staggered. The board chooses a chairperson, who presides over the commission, as well as appoints the members of its legislative committees. The board has a wide array of powers to enact legislation, create departments, and regulate businesses operating within the county. It also has the power to override the mayor's veto with a two-thirds vote.

Florida's Constitution provides for five elected officials to oversee executive and administrative functions for each county (called "Constitutional Officers"): Sheriff, Property Appraiser, Supervisor of Elections, Tax Collector, and Clerk of the Circuit Court (also functions as Comptroller).[74] However, the Constitution allows voters in home-rule counties (including Miami-Dade) to abolish the offices and reorganize them as subordinate County departments;[75] Miami-Dade voters chose this option for Sheriff, Supervisor of Elections, and Tax Collector.[76] The offices of Clerk of the Circuit Court, State Attorney, and Public Defender are still branches of State government and are, therefore, independently elected and not part of County government.[77]

Miami-Dade is the only county in Florida that does not have an elected sheriff or a "Sheriff's Office".[78] Instead, the county's law enforcement agency is known as the Miami-Dade Police Department, and its leader is known as the Metropolitan Sheriff and Director of the Miami-Dade Police Department; Nonetheless, Miami-Dade Police badges bear the inscription, "Deputy Sheriff, Sheriff's Office, Dade County, Fla."

Politics[edit]

Overview[edit]

Miami-Dade County has voted for the Democratic Party candidate in most of the presidential elections in the past four decades, and has gone Democratic in every election since 1992. However, it did vote twice for Ronald Reagan (1980, 1984) and once for George H. W. Bush (1988). From 1904 to 1972 it supported the Democratic candidate in all but four elections. The Democrats had expanded their winning margin in each of the three elections from 2008 to 2016; in 2008 and 2012, Democrat Barack Obama averaged 59.69% of the vote. In 2016, Democrat Hillary Clinton won 63.22% of the vote. However, in 2020, Democrat Joe Biden only won 53.31% of the vote, winning the county by just over seven percent over Republican Donald Trump. This was attributed to a large swing of Cuban Americans, Venezuelan Americans, and other Hispanic Americans to the Republican Party,[79] resulting in the best Republican performance since 2004. In the 2022 gubernatorial and U.S. Senate elections, Republicans Ron DeSantis and Marco Rubio respectively won the county. DeSantis became the first Republican Governor to win Miami-Dade since Jeb Bush in 2002. Rubio won the county for the second time, following his victory in 2010.

Miami-Dade County is represented in the United States House of Representatives by Republicans Maria Elvira Salazar, Carlos Gimenez and Mario Diaz-Balart of the 27th, 28th and 26th districts, and Democrats Frederica Wilson and Debbie Wasserman Schultz of the 24th and 25th districts.

United States presidential election results for Miami-Dade County, Florida[80]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 532,833 45.98% 617,864 53.31% 8,221 0.71%
2016 333,999 33.83% 624,146 63.22% 29,046 2.94%
2012 332,981 37.87% 541,440 61.58% 4,758 0.54%
2008 360,551 41.70% 499,831 57.81% 4,254 0.49%
2004 361,095 46.61% 409,732 52.89% 3,899 0.50%
2000 289,574 46.29% 328,867 52.57% 7,111 1.14%
1996 209,740 37.87% 317,555 57.34% 26,487 4.78%
1992 235,313 43.19% 254,609 46.73% 54,921 10.08%
1988 270,937 55.26% 216,970 44.26% 2,358 0.48%
1984 324,414 59.17% 223,863 40.83% 35 0.01%
1980 265,888 50.65% 210,868 40.17% 48,149 9.17%
1976 211,148 40.45% 303,047 58.06% 7,747 1.48%
1972 256,529 58.87% 177,693 40.78% 1,541 0.35%
1968 135,222 37.02% 176,689 48.37% 53,391 14.62%
1964 117,480 35.99% 208,941 64.01% 0 0.00%
1960 134,506 42.35% 183,114 57.65% 0 0.00%
1956 130,938 55.37% 105,559 44.63% 0 0.00%
1952 122,174 56.77% 93,022 43.23% 0 0.00%
1948 41,301 37.04% 59,681 53.52% 10,530 9.44%
1944 30,357 33.56% 60,100 66.44% 0 0.00%
1940 25,224 32.70% 51,921 67.30% 0 0.00%
1936 10,295 26.88% 28,007 73.12% 0 0.00%
1932 9,244 34.16% 17,820 65.84% 0 0.00%
1928 15,860 60.15% 10,136 38.44% 372 1.41%
1924 2,753 26.01% 3,474 32.83% 4,356 41.16%
1920 3,077 38.09% 4,288 53.08% 713 8.83%
1916 629 21.94% 1,654 57.69% 584 20.37%
1912 99 5.56% 1,171 65.71% 512 28.73%
1908 275 17.34% 961 60.59% 350 22.07%
1904 307 24.08% 887 69.57% 81 6.35%
1900 389 28.50% 806 59.05% 170 12.45%
1896 368 46.46% 372 46.97% 52 6.57%
1892 0 0.00% 109 95.61% 5 4.39%

Voter registration[edit]

Registered voters as of November 30, 2022[81]
Total population[82] 2,701,767 (2020 census)
  Registered voters[83] 1,539,063 ~57%
    Democratic 574,948 37.80%
    Republican 445,224 28.64%
    Democratic–Republican spread +129,724 +9.16%
    Minor parties 23,699 1.52%
    No party preference 495,192 32.04%
Previous gubernatorial elections results
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2022 55.3% 393,532 44.0% 312,972 0.7% 5,347
2018 39.0% 311,581 59.8% 478,958 1.1% 8,483
2014 39.3% 205,017 58.4% 304,721 2.2% 11,684
2010 42.0% 204,918 56.2% 274,638 1.8% 8,332
2006 45.3% 183,457 53.3% 215,930 1.4% 5,558

Economy[edit]

With 16,479 employees as of 2021, the University of Miami in Coral Gables is the county's second-largest employer after Baptist Health South Florida.[84]
The headquarters of Burger King in January 2008
The headquarters of Norwegian Cruise Line in January 2008
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds[85]

Brightstar Corporation,[86] Burger King,[87] Intradeco Holdings,[88] Latin Flavors,[89] Norwegian Cruise Line,[90] and Ryder have their headquarters in unincorporated areas in the county.[91] Centurion Air Cargo, Florida West International Airways, IBC Airways, and World Atlantic Airlines have their headquarters on the grounds of Miami International Airport in an unincorporated area in the county.[92][93][94][95][96]

Hewlett Packard's main Latin America offices are on the ninth floor of the Waterford Building in unincorporated Miami-Dade County.[97]

Other companies with offices in an unincorporated area not in any CDP:

Several defunct airlines, including Airlift International, Arrow Air, National Airlines, and Rich International Airways, were headquartered on or near the airport property.[102][103][104][105]

After Frank Borman became president of Eastern Airlines in 1975, he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City to an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County[106][107] Around 1991 the Miami-Dade County lost a few corporations, including Eastern Airlines, which folded in 1991.[108]

At one time the cruise line ResidenSea had its headquarters in an unincorporated area in the county.[109]

Top private employers[edit]

According to Miami's Beacon Council, the top private employers in 2014 in Miami-Dade were:[110]

# Employer # of employees
1 University of Miami 12,818
2 Baptist Health South Florida 11,353
3 American Airlines 11,031
4 Carnival Cruise Line 3,500
5 Nicklaus Children's Hospital 3,500
6 Mount Sinai Medical Center 3,321
7 Florida Power & Light 3,011
8 Royal Caribbean International 2,989
9 Wells Fargo 2,050
10 Bank of America 2,000

Top government employers[edit]

According to Miami's Beacon Council, the top government employers in 2014 in the county were:[110]

# Employer # of employees
1 Miami-Dade County Public Schools 33,477
2 Miami-Dade County 25,502
3 U.S. federal government 19,200
4 Florida state government 17,100
5 Jackson Health System 9,800

Agriculture[edit]

Most of the state's summer okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is grown here,[111] totalling 1,000 to 1,500 acres (400 to 610 ha) over the whole year.[112] It is grown as a "scavenger crop", one grown to scavenge the benefits of residual fumigant and fertilizer.[111] The most problematic pest is the Melon Thrips (Thrips palmi) but aphids are also significant.[112] Although the Silverleaf Whitefly (Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci) reproduces in large numbers on this crop, the plant is not seriously harmed and the feeding damage is quickly repaired.[112] This does still leave okra as a problematic refuge from which SLW will migrate, to nearby tomato, bean, and ornamentals.[112] The University of Florida provides a production handbook[113]: 235  which recommends disease management and weed management practices.

Methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out and Telone products – fumigants – are heavily regulated here.[113]: 46  M-D much more heavily regulates Telone than the rest of the state does.[113]: 46  Therefore the best MB alternatives here are either metam sodium or metam potassium, both combined with chloropicrin.[113]: 46 

M-D has some of the lowest Cry 1F resistance in the country.[114] Despite its high volume of cargo traffic with Puerto Rico and earlier speculation, none of PR's extreme Cry1F-r genetics seems to have spread to this area.[114] Southern Florida in general has the lowest in the country (including PR).[114]

The state's first invasion of the Peach Fruit Fly (Bactrocera zonata) began here.[115] An adult male PFF was found on November 10, 2010, on a guava tree (Psidium guajava).[115] The state responded by trapping an 81 square miles (210 km2) are around the site.[115]

The Little Fire Ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) is an invasive agricultural pest here.[116] In fact the first recorded invasion of the state was in 1924 in Coconut Grove (which was then near Miami and has since been incorporated into the city).[116][117]

M-D has the largest greenhousing/nursery industry in the state, but on the other hand produces very little of its own livestock.[118]

Public services[edit]

Fire rescue[edit]

The Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department

The Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue Department is the agency that provides fire protection and emergency medical services for Miami-Dade County, Florida. The department serves 29 municipalities and all unincorporated areas of Miami-Dade County from 60 fire stations.[119] The Department also provides fire protection services for Miami International Airport, Miami Executive Airport and Opa-locka Airport.[120]

The communities served are Aventura, Bal Harbour, Bay Harbor Islands, Biscayne Park, Cutler Bay, Doral, El Portal, Florida City, Golden Beach, Hialeah Gardens, Homestead, Indian Creek, Medley, Miami Gardens, Miami Lakes, Miami Shores, Miami Springs, North Bay Village, North Miami, North Miami Beach, Opa-locka, Palmetto Bay, Pinecrest, South Miami, Surfside, Sweetwater, Sunny Isles Beach, Virginia Gardens, and West Miami.[121]

Miami-Dade Fire Rescue is also the home to Urban Search and Rescue Florida Task Force 1 as well as EMS operations consisting of 57 Advanced Life Support units staffed by 760 state-certified paramedics and 640 state-certified emergency medical technicians.

Police department[edit]

A Miami-Dade Police Department vehicle

The Miami-Dade Police Department is a full-service metropolitan police department serving Miami-Dade County's unincorporated areas, although it has lenient mutual aid agreements with other municipalities, most often the City of Miami Police Department. With 4,700 employees, it is Florida's largest police department. The Department is often referred to by its former name, the Metro-Dade Police or simply Metro.

The Miami-Dade Police Department operates out of nine districts throughout the county and has two special bureaus. The director of the department is Juan Perez, who succeeded J.D. Patterson, Jr.[122] The Department's headquarters are in Doral, Florida.

Water and sewer department[edit]

Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) is one of the largest public utilities in the United States, employing approximately 2,700 employees as of 2007. It provides service to over 2.4 million customers, operating with an annual budget of almost $400 million. Approximately 330 million gallons of water are drawn every day from the Biscayne Aquifer for consumer use. MDWASD has over 7,100 miles (11,400 km) of water lines, a service area of 396 square miles (1,026 km2) and 14 pump stations. MDWASD has over 3,600 miles (5,800 km) of sewage pipes, a service area of 341 square miles (883 km2) and 954 pump stations.[123] Miami-Dade County is also in the jurisdiction of the South Dade Soil and Water Conservation District.

Corrections department[edit]

Miami-Dade County Corrections and Rehabilitation Department is the correction agency.

Aviation department[edit]

The Miami-Dade Aviation Department (MDAD) operates Miami International Airport, Miami Executive Airport, Opa-locka Executive Airport, Homestead General Aviation Airport, and Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport.[124]

County representation[edit]

The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice operates the Miami-Dade Regional Juvenile Detention Center in an unincorporated area in the county.[125]

Public libraries[edit]

Lemon City Branch Library, c. 1955
Shenandoah Branch Library in November 2015

The Miami-Dade Public Library System traces its origin to the late nineteenth century. The first library was a reading room established in Lemon City on April 7, 1894, by the Lemon City Library and Improvement Association. In 1942 neighborhood libraries were brought together in a single public library system, governed by a board of trustees and administered by a Head Librarian. A new central library building had been proposed for Bayfront Park in Downtown Miami as early as 1938, but the proposal was not realized till over a decade later. In December 1965 the City of Miami and Metropolitan Dade County agreed that the City of Miami would provide public library service to unincorporated Dade County and to those municipalities that did not provide their library service with four bookmobiles provided library service to the unincorporated area. On November 1, 1971, the City of Miami transferred its library system to Metropolitan Dade County which created a new Department of Libraries with a Director reporting directly to the County Manager.

On November 7, 1972, Dade County voters approved a referendum, also known as the "Decade of Progress" bonds, authorized approximately $553 million for public improvement projects in Dade County. Of that amount, approximately $34.7 million was authorized for public libraries, including construction, renovation, land acquisition, furnishings, and equipment. Between 1976 and 1990, this bond issue provided the funds to open 14 new libraries.[126] On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew inflicted significant damage on the library system, destroying all branches south of Kendall Drive.[127] Over the next years, no further expansion of the system was funded and no new libraries opened. It was not until the fall of 2001, when Mayor Alex Penelas and Board of County Commissioners voted to increase the library system's budget which provided funding for capital improvement initiatives—making way for the opening of 18 new libraries by 2011. As of 2017, 15 of these libraries have been opened, with the remaining 3 still under construction.

Today Miami-Dade Public Library System serves a population of 2,496,435, provides services for the Miami-Dade County except for the cities of Bal Harbour, Hialeah, Homestead, Miami Shores, North Miami, North Miami Beach and Surfside. It has forty-nine branches,[128] two bookmobiles and one technobus. The Miami-Dade County Board of County Commissioners governs the Miami-Dade Public Library System.[129]

Education[edit]

The University of Miami in Coral Gables, April 2006
Florida International University in University Park, October 2018
Miami Dade College in Miami, December 2019

Colleges and universities[edit]

The University of Miami, located in Coral Gables, is among the top-tier research universities in the United States, and is the highest ranked private university in Florida.

As of 2020, Florida International University, located in Westchester (in the University Park area), is the fifth largest university by enrollment in the United States. Miami Dade College, located in Miami, has the second largest undergraduate enrollment of any U.S. college or university with over 100,000 students.

A full list of colleges and universities:

Primary and secondary (K-12) schools[edit]

In Florida, each county is also a school district, and Miami-Dade County Public Schools is such for the county.[130] The district is operated by an independently elected School Board. A professional Superintendent of Schools appointed by the School Board manages the district's day-to-day operations. As of 2014, the Miami-Dade County Public School District is the fourth-largest public school district in the nation with almost 360,000 students.[131]

The Miami-Dade Public Library is one of the country's largest public library systems. It has 50 branch locations and others under construction.[132]

Miami-Dade County is home to many private and public primary and secondary schools.

MDCPS public
Charter
Tribal
Private

Sites of interest[edit]

The Pérez Art Museum in Downtown Miami in July 2014
Frost Art Museum at Florida International University in April 2009

Museums[edit]

Culture and wildlife[edit]

Vizcaya Museum and Gardens in Coconut Grove in June 2007
Miami Seaquarium in Virginia Key in October 2006

Other areas and attractions[edit]

South Beach in April 2006

Parks[edit]

Sports venues[edit]

Hard Rock Stadium, home of the Miami Dolphins of the NFL and Miami Hurricanes of NCAA Division I college football, January 2020
LoanDepot Park, home of the Miami Marlins, April 2012

Miami-Dade County holds the majority of sports arenas, stadiums and complexes in South Florida. Some of these sports facilities are:

Former venues include:

Planned:

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Miami International Airport

Miami International Airport (IATA: MIA, ICAO: KMIA, FAA LID: MIA), in an unincorporated area in central Miami-Dade County, is the Miami area's primary international airport. One of the busiest international airports in the world, it serves over 35 million passengers a year. The airport is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier. Miami International Airport is the United States' third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport), and is the seventh largest such gateway in the world. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Other airports in Miami-Dade County include:

Public transit[edit]

Public transit in Miami-Dade County is operated by Miami-Dade Transit (MDT),[133] the largest public transit system in the state. MDT operates Metrorail, a heavy rail rapid transit system; Metromover, an elevated people mover servicing Downtown Miami, the Brickell financial district and the Arts & Entertainment District; and Metrobus, the county-wide bus system.[134] MDT also runs the Paratransit division's Special Transportation Service.

Many county municipalities also operate local circulator trolleys within their municipal limits. These free trolleys are operated either independently by the municipality or in concert with MDT, and connect with the MDT network at various locations throughout their routes. Some examples of municipalities offering such services include Aventura [1], Coral Gables [2], Doral [3], Hialeah [4], Homestead [5], Miami [6], Miami Beach [7], Miami Gardens [8] North Miami Beach [9], and Sunny Isles Beach [10]. Additionally, the Homestead trolley network includes seasonal service from the city to Biscayne National Park and Everglades National Park [11].

MDT also collaborates with Broward County Transit to provide overlapping and connecting bus service between Miami-Dade and Broward counties, and with Monroe County Transit to provide overlapping and connecting bus service between Miami-Dade County and the Florida Keys.

Miami-Dade County is also serviced by the Tri-Rail commuter rail service connecting locations in Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, and the Amtrak and Brightline intercity rail systems, all of which connect at various locations to Metrorail and other parts of the MDT network.

Companies providing intercity bus service in Miami-Dade County include FlixBus, Greyhound Lines and Megabus.

The Miami Intermodal Center (MIC) is an intermodal rapid transit, commuter rail, intercity rail, local bus, intercity bus and vehicle rental transportation hub just east of Miami International Airport and connected to the airport via an automated people mover. It connects the airport to all the other modes of public transportation available in the county.

Major expressways[edit]

Julia Tuttle Causeway, which connects Miami with Miami Beach, May 2008
Flagler Street in Downtown Miami, May 2008
Florida State Road 970, also known as the Downtown Distributor, May 2008

Miami-Dade County has 10 major expressways and one minor expressway in Downtown Miami:

County roads[edit]

This is a list of Miami-Dade county roads. Miami-Dade County has fewer county roads than any other county in Florida, despite its large population. None are signed.

# Road Name(s) Direction and Termini Notes
CR 854 Ives Dairy Road SR 817 US 1 former SR 854 (east of US 441)[135]
CR 913 Crandon Boulevard / Rickenbacker Causeway extension of SR 913
CR 948 Lindgren Road extension of SR 825
CR 959 Southwest 57th Avenue extension of SR 959
CR 973 Galloway Road extension of SR 973
CR 992 Coral Reef Drive extension of SR 992
CR 9823 Northwest 67th Avenue
Northwest 68th Avenue
N/S SR 826 Palm Springs North Broward County line Palm Springs North

Sources:

Street grid[edit]

A street grid stretches from downtown Miami throughout the county. This grid was adopted by the City of Miami following World War I after the United States Post Office threatened to cease mail deliveries in the city because the original system of named streets, with names often changing every few blocks and multiple streets in the city sharing the same name, was too confusing for the mail carriers.[136] The new grid was later extended throughout the county as the population grew west, south, and north of city limits.

The grid is laid out with Miami Avenue as the meridian going north–south and Flagler Street the baseline going east-west. The grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler and west of Miami Avenue have NW in their address (e.g. NW 27th Avenue). Because its point of origin is in downtown Miami which is close to the coast, the NW and SW quadrants are much larger than the SE and NE quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named, although, with a few notable exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals.

Although this grid is easy to understand once one is oriented to it, it is not utilized in the entire county. Hialeah uses its own grid system which is entirely different in its orientation. Coral Gables and Miami Lakes use named streets almost exclusively, and various smaller municipalities such as Florida City and Homestead use their own grid system along with the Miami-Dade grid system adding to the confusion. In the beach cities and parks of Miami Beach, Surfside, Bal Harbour, Sunny Isles, and Golden Beach, the streets are coordinated with the main grid; however, their avenues are named.

Communities[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Miami-Dade County's sister cities are:[137]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Mayor of Miami-Dade County is officially elected in a non-partisan election, despite common de facto party affiliation.
  2. ^ Language spoken at home among residents at least five years old; only languages (or language groups) which at least 2% of residents have spoken at any time since 1980 are mentioned
  3. ^ Refers to 2013–2017 American Community Survey data;[49] the last Decennial Census where language data was collected was in the 2000 census
  4. ^ Refers to 2008–2012 American Community Survey data;[50] the last Decennial Census where language data was collected was in the 2000 census
  5. ^ Refers to 2013–2017 American Community Survey data;[54][55] the last Decennial Census where foreign-born population data was collected was in the 2000 census
  6. ^ Refers to 2008–2012 American Community Survey data;[56][57] the last Decennial Census where foreign-born population data was collected was in the 2000 census
  7. ^ Only countries of birth which at least 0.3% of residents were born in at any time since 1980 were born in are mentioned
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Not counted separately; aggregated into "Other" category
  9. ^ a b Data from the 1980 census and 1990 census pertains to residents born anywhere in the Soviet Union, not just Russia

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Agencies and Officials". 8.miamidade.gov.
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  5. ^ a b "County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2022". County Population Totals: 2020-2022. U.S. Census Bureau. March 30, 2023. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  6. ^ "GDP by County | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)". Bea.gov.
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  10. ^ University of Miami profile at U.S. News & World Report National Universities
  11. ^ "Largest employers in South Florida", South Florida Business Journal, September 24, 2021
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  49. ^ "C16001: LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME FOR ... - Census Bureau Table". C16001 | LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
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  55. ^ "B05006: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". B05006 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
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